Find Alouatta guariba videos, photos, and information at ARKive. Glossary Neotropical living in the southern part of the New World. In other words, Central and South America. In birds, naked and helpless after hatching. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
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Social systems[ edit ] Most howler species live in groups of six to 15 animals, with one to three adult males and multiple females. Mantled howler monkeys are an exception, commonly living in groups of 15 to 20 individuals with more than three adult males.
The number of males in a given group is inversely correlated with the size of their hyoid and is positively correlated with testes size. This results in two distinct groups, wherein one male with a larger hyoid and smaller testes copulates exclusively with a group of females. The other group has more males, which have smaller hyoids, and larger testes, and free copulation occurs among the group.
The larger the number of males, the smaller the hyoid, and the larger the testes. Physical fighting among group members is infrequent and generally of short duration. However, serious injuries can result. Both males and females rarely fight with each other, but physical aggression is even more rare between sexes.
They each have an enlarged basihyal or hyoid bone , which helps them make their loud vocalizations. Group males generally call at dawn and dusk, as well as interspersed times throughout the day. The main vocals consist of loud, deep guttural growls or "howls". Howler monkeys are widely considered to be the loudest land animal. Diet and feeding[ edit ] An ursine howler These large and slow-moving monkeys are the only folivores of the New World monkeys.
Howlers eat mainly top canopy leaves , together with fruit , buds, flowers , and nuts. They need to be careful not to eat too many leaves of certain species in one sitting, as some contain toxins that can poison them. To the Mayas of the Classic period, they were the divine patrons of the artisans, especially scribes and sculptors.
They were seen as gods in some tribes, and the long, sleek tail was worshipped for its beauty. Two howler monkey brothers play a role in the myth of the Maya Hero Twins included in the Popol Vuh , a widely feared tale of soul and passion.
Geographic distribution[ edit ] The brown howler lives in the Atlantic forest in South America. The diet of the brown howler monkey consists primarily of leaves and trees. Of the food sources it seems that the genera Ficus , Zanthoxylum , and Eugenia are the most significant types consumed. Brown howler monkeys that live in higher latitudes tend to eat a lower percentage of leaves in their diet. A typical brown howler diet will also include mature fruit, wild figs, petioles, buds, flowers, seeds, moss, stems, and twigs  The Atlantic forest , where brown howlers tend to live, has an increasing forest fragmentation.