This method creates individual user accounts on each device with a specific password assigned to each user. The local database method provides additional security, because an attacker is required to know a username and a password. It also provides more accountability, because the username is recorded when a user logs in. Keep in mind that the username password command combination displays the password in plaintext in the configuration file if the service password-encryption command is not configured.
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Almost all devices have their own method to provide log information about the usage of devices. Administrators use these logs to find the solutions to troubleshoot the issues caused by devices. The redundancy can be applied at the various levels such as Server level, Disk-level, and even the network device-level.
One of the most popular and traditional way to interconnect routers on a WAN network is using the Serial interfaces.
Nowadays it is not so much popular and heavily replaced by the latest technologies such as ATM. NAT enhances the security of the network by hiding the actual IP information from the external users. The external users see the translated IP addresses rather than actual IP addresses. This is also called masking. An ACL can be used to filter either inbound or outbound traffic on an interface.
However, spanning-tree sometime can also create a problem for your network. For example, suppose you have a server that is connected into your switch. For example, you can control who can access a specific interface of a switch or how many devices could be connected to a specific switch interface. There is a feature called Switch Port Security that allow you to do so. Thus help you to combine bandwidth of all port and provide redundancy in case of a single port failure.
CCNA Certification and Training
Collection Book CCNA Security Course Booklet Version 1.2 (3rd Edition)
CCNA Security Course Booklet Version 2