ELEMENTARY SURVEYING BY LA PUTT PDF

Also used for navigation purposes ERRORS Defined as the difference between the true value and the measured value of a quantity and is often beyond the control of the one performing the operation. MISTAKES Are inaccuracies in measurements which occur because some aspect of a surveying operation is performed by the surveyor with carelessness, inattention, poor judgment , and improper execution. Also caused by a misunderstanding of a problem , inexperience, or indifference of the surveyor. Will repeat itself in other measurements still maintaining the same sign, and thus will accumulate. Can be computed and their effects be eliminated by applying corrections , employing proper techniques in the use of instruments or by adopting a field procedure which will automatically eliminate it.

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Also used for navigation purposes ERRORS Defined as the difference between the true value and the measured value of a quantity and is often beyond the control of the one performing the operation.

MISTAKES Are inaccuracies in measurements which occur because some aspect of a surveying operation is performed by the surveyor with carelessness, inattention, poor judgment , and improper execution. Also caused by a misunderstanding of a problem , inexperience, or indifference of the surveyor. Will repeat itself in other measurements still maintaining the same sign, and thus will accumulate.

Can be computed and their effects be eliminated by applying corrections , employing proper techniques in the use of instruments or by adopting a field procedure which will automatically eliminate it.

Caused by factors beyond the control of the surveyor and are present in all surveying measurements. Usually of minor importance in surveying operations since they are variable in sign and are of a compensating nature.

Measuring with a tape of incorrect length b. Using a leveling rod with painted graduations not perfectly spaced NATURAL ERRORS Caused by variations in the phenomena of nature such as changes in magnetic declination , temperature , humidity , wind , refraction , gravity and curvature of the earth. Portrayed by the closeness of one another of a set of repeated measurements of quantities.

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ELEMENTARY SURVEYING BY LA PUTT PDF

Access Denied Registration is not required. Coffee and tea are extra. These young ladies have demonstrated outstanding potential throughout their high school years at St. Results from the […]. Surevying the campus is rich in traditions and has numerous past accomplishments it is also creating a future of continued student success. Best of all, perhaps, was that the Mavericks won their first District A game of the season, a triumph over Seven Lakes.

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