HOW LANGUAGES ARE LEARNED NINA SPADA PDF

Search for: Home Patsy Martin Lightbown, PhD, has worked for more than forty years in the fields of language teaching and language learning. Her research has focused on the teaching and learning of second and foreign languages in classroom contexts. Distinguished Professor Emerita at Concordia University in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, she is a writer and editor as well as a consultant and advisor to teachers, policy makers, curriculum developers, administrators, and evaluators of second and foreign language instructional programs K, adult education, and university levels. Professor Lightbown has published scores of articles on her research in professional journals and books.

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Shelves: owned-books , nlp-related Looking for better methods for learning languages I decided to dive into How Languages are Learned by Patsy M. The book is dedicated to teachers, and as such, offers superfluous information for a person simply interested in learning. Nevertheless, the book is simply packed with information that is also relevant to a student.

The text is divided into 7 chapters and follows a very natural pattern: introducing first language acquisition in the first chapter; the problem of Looking for better methods for learning languages I decided to dive into How Languages are Learned by Patsy M.

The text is divided into 7 chapters and follows a very natural pattern: introducing first language acquisition in the first chapter; the problem of second language L2 acquisition in the second; individual differences in L2 acquisition; the main psychological and cognitive theories second languages acquisition; how classroom-based studies are performed; and various studies about L2 teaching methodologies.

The book concludes with a chapter summarizing the various popular mis- conceptions related to language learning. The authors cite studies for each of their claims, and each chapter ends with suggestions for further reading. One of the theories covered in the book is that language learners develop an intralangue as they progress, their working hypothesis on how a language works.

Sometimes, learners may produce more errors then before simply because they unify some rules and generalize previous cases that were learned in whole chunking e. The authors propose three stages of language skill - declarative knowledge, procedural knowledge and automatic knowledge. Automatic knowledge is procedural knowledge that is refined to a point that it stops being a conscious effort. Students use different means of acquiring language. Some exceptional cases can exhibit even near native-level performance no matter the learning methodology but for most cases near native-level performance is only achievable if learning had begun before the age of Diverse teaching methods combining both structure based grammar rules and communication based comprehension and producing speech and writing methods can also facilitate learning, wheres concentrating only one aspect of the language comprehensions, speaking etc.

Most adult students never achieve near-native pronunciation, although there are exceptions, and according to studies stress and rhythm are more important for understanding than pronunciation itself.

Passive sources of language such as books, television or radio seem to not be sufficient for learning a language, even for native speakers.

And according to studies, a new word needs to be seen at least 16 times to be remembered, although activates that require them to attend carefully to new words and use them in production tasks might speed up the process of learning. I would recommend How Languages are Learned to anyone interested in the topic of language acquisition. The text is very approachable though targeted to teachers , and even though some of the information given in the book might not be instantaneously applicable, the amount of useful knowledge is just incredible!

It was not what I wanted in that research has not yet definitively answered all my questions! If anything, the book equivocates more than it has to. As they put it: "Knowing more about second language acquisition will not tell you what to do in your classroom tomorrow morning.

On a positive note, this book made me feel more emboldened to keep learning and keep It was just what I was looking for in that it gives a good overview of the prevailing theories around language acquisition. On a positive note, this book made me feel more emboldened to keep learning and keep forging ahead. Sure you could go sideways here and there, but nothing ventured, nothing gained. Note that Chapter 7 is excellent - they look at prevailing ideas around language learning and break it down.

You could actually just read this chapter to access all the major points of the book.

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Shelves: owned-books , nlp-related Looking for better methods for learning languages I decided to dive into How Languages are Learned by Patsy M. The book is dedicated to teachers, and as such, offers superfluous information for a person simply interested in learning. Nevertheless, the book is simply packed with information that is also relevant to a student. The text is divided into 7 chapters and follows a very natural pattern: introducing first language acquisition in the first chapter; the problem of Looking for better methods for learning languages I decided to dive into How Languages are Learned by Patsy M. The text is divided into 7 chapters and follows a very natural pattern: introducing first language acquisition in the first chapter; the problem of second language L2 acquisition in the second; individual differences in L2 acquisition; the main psychological and cognitive theories second languages acquisition; how classroom-based studies are performed; and various studies about L2 teaching methodologies. The book concludes with a chapter summarizing the various popular mis- conceptions related to language learning.

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