INTELLIGENCE MAZE-SOLVING BY AN AMOEBOID ORGANISM PDF

Show Others Like This. Maze-solving by an Amoeboid Organism www. For example, you could try printing the maze on the filter paper directly, then coloring in the maze with crayons or other material the Physarum polycephalum will not grow over. I created this work entirely by myself. Studies done by Dr.

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Metrics details Abstract The plasmodium of the slime mould Physarum polycephalum is a large amoeba-like cell consisting of a dendritic network of tube-like structures pseudopodia. It changes its shape as it crawls over a plain agar gel and, if food is placed at two different points, it will put out pseudopodia that connect the two food sources. Here we show that this simple organism has the ability to find the minimum-length solution between two points in a labyrinth.

We then positioned these in a maze created by cutting a plastic film and placing it on an agar surface. The plasmodial pieces spread and coalesced to form a single organism that filled the maze Fig.

At the start and end points of the maze, we placed 0. Figure 1: Maze-solving by Physarum polycephalum. Numbers indicate the frequency with which each pathway was selected. See Supplementary Information for an animated version of a—c. Full size image The plasmodium pseudopodia reaching dead ends in the labyrinth shrank Fig.

The plasmodial tube is reinforced or decays when it lies parallel or perpendicular, respectively, to the direction of local periodic contraction 7 ; the final tube, following the wave propagation, will therefore link food sites by the shortest path. To maximize its foraging efficiency, and therefore its chances of survival, the plasmodium changes its shape in the maze to form one thick tube covering the shortest distance between the food sources. This remarkable process of cellular computation implies that cellular materials can show a primitive intelligence 8 , 9 ,

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INTELLIGENCE MAZE-SOLVING BY AN AMOEBOID ORGANISM PDF

Amoebae as specialized cells and life cycle stages[ edit ] Neutrophil white blood cell engulfing anthrax bacteria Some multicellular organisms have amoeboid cells only in certain phases of life, or use amoeboid movements for specialized functions. In the immune system of humans and other animals, amoeboid white blood cells pursue invading organisms, such as bacteria and pathogenic protists, and engulf them by phagocytosis. Both the plasmodial slime moulds, currently classified in the class Myxogastria , and the cellular slime moulds of the groups Acrasida and Dictyosteliida , live as amoebae during their feeding stage. The amoeboid cells of the former combine to form a giant multinucleate organism, [33] while the cells of the latter live separately until food runs out, at which time the amoebae aggregate to form a multicellular migrating "slug" which functions as a single organism. Ehrenberg , adopted the genus in his own classification of microscopic creatures, but changed the spelling to Amoeba. Within the traditional Sarcodina, amoebae were generally divided into morphological categories , on the basis of the form and structure of their pseudopods. Amoebae with pseudopods supported by regular arrays of microtubules such as the freshwater Heliozoa and marine Radiolaria were classified as Actinopods ; whereas those with unsupported pseudopods were classified as Rhizopods.

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