INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY CRACOLICE PDF

Each chapter includes an Everyday Chemistry section that illustrates how chemistry is applied in daily life. About the Author: Mark S. Cracolice is a professor in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at the University of Montana, where he teaches freshman-level chemistry courses, as well as graduate-level courses in teaching chemistry, theories of learning, and chemical education research. He directs a research group that seeks answers to questions about how students learn, and is involved in conducting professional development workshops for high school, college, and university chemistry instructors.

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See Section 2. Which of the following statements is false? A chemical change that releases energy to its surroundings is called an exothermic reaction b. A chemical change that absorbs energy from its surroundings is called an endothermic reaction c. All of the above are true. A book is pushed off a table, and it falls to the floor.

Which of the following statements about the book is false? Its potential energy is at a maximum just as it leaves the table b.

Its kinetic energy is at a maximum just before it hits the floor c. Its kinetic energy is equal to its potential energy at a point halfway between the table and the floor d.

Its potential energy is reduced e. As a positively charged object moves toward a negatively charged object, their potential energy increases b. As a positively charged object moves toward another positively charged object, their potential energy increases c. As a negatively charged object moves toward another negatively charged object, their potential energy Copyright Cengage Learning. Powered by Cognero.

Increasing the distance between two electrically charged objects may raise or lower their potential energy e. Any moving object has kinetic energy c. Minimization of energy is one of the driving forces that cause chemical reactions to occur d. Kinetic energy is always greater than potential energy for an object e. When freshly cut sodium metal is exposed to air, the mass of the substance increases. Which of the following is the best explanation for this apparent violation of the Law of Conservation of Mass?

The sodium atoms move closer to one another, causing the sample to gain mass c. The sodium reacts with a component of the air, and the total mass of the reactants is equal to the total mass of the products d. Thermal energy of the air is converted into the additional mass e.

When paper is burned, the mass of the remaining ash is less than the mass of the original paper. Some of the mass is converted into the heat energy evolved from burning b. When invisible substances are taken into account, the total mass of the reactants is equal to the total mass of the products c.

The ash is more dense than the paper d. The different molecular structure of the ash causes it to appear to have less mass until it is compacted e.

Which of the following is the best statement of the Law of Conservation of Mass? Copyright Cengage Learning. In any non-nuclear change, energy is conserved b. In a chemical change, the mass of the reactants is always greater than or equal to the mass of the products c. In a chemical change, the mass of the products is always greater than or equal to the mass of the reactants d. For endothermic chemical reactions, the mass of the products is greater than the mass of the reactants, and for exothermic chemical reactions, the mass of the products is less than the mass of the reactants e.

When coasting on a bicycle on a level street, the bicycle will eventually come to a stop. Which of the following is the best explanation for this apparent violation of the Law of Conservation of Energy?

The kinetic energy is converted into an equal amount of energy in other forms b. The rubber in the tires is converted into energy c. If there was no air resistance, the bicycle would continue moving indefinitely d. The street must actually be slightly angled uphill e. When room temperature solutions of vinegar and drain cleaner are combined, the temperature of the resulting solution is greater than room temperature.

Some of the mass of the room temperature solutions is converted into heat energy b. The total energy of the original solutions is equal to the total energy of the resulting solution plus the heat energy c. An ordinary chemical reaction occurs, so the Law of Conservation of Energy does not apply d. The thermometer used to measure the temperature of the solutions must be faulty e.

Which of the following is the best statement of the Law of Conservation of Energy? Kinetic energy cannot be converted into potential energy b. Kinetic energy cannot be converted into chemical energy c. Potential energy cannot be converted into chemical energy d.

Energy is neither created nor destroyed in an ordinary change e. See Copyright Cengage Learning. Under what condition is the Law of Conservation of Energy not obeyed? Digestion of food b. Human and some animal metabolism of sports drinks c. High speed travel, such as in military jets and the space shuttle d.

Nuclear changes e.

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