HEART BYPASS SURGERY USING NANOROBOTS PDF

US Cardiology, ;3 1 Nanotechnology is a area of science that involves working with materials and devices on a nanoscale level. Its functions are spread across all areas of sciences including physics, chemistry, and biology. Many biological structures are at nanometer scale. For example, a quantum dot is approximately the size of a small protein less than 10nm and drug-carrying nanostructures are the same size as some viruses less than nm. Nanostructures display unique mechanical, electrical, chemical, and optical properties.

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US Cardiology, ;3 1 Nanotechnology is a area of science that involves working with materials and devices on a nanoscale level. Its functions are spread across all areas of sciences including physics, chemistry, and biology. Many biological structures are at nanometer scale. For example, a quantum dot is approximately the size of a small protein less than 10nm and drug-carrying nanostructures are the same size as some viruses less than nm.

Nanostructures display unique mechanical, electrical, chemical, and optical properties. Understanding and controlling such properties is challenging, but harnessing them will provide exciting new opportunities for research, diagnosis, and therapy of heart, lung, blood, and sleep HLBS disorders.

It can provide novel techniques in the treatment of a multitude of diseases, including cardiovascular disorders. Richard Feynman, winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics, was a pioneer in area of nanotechnology. Applying nanotechnology methods has offered insight into the potential benefits of nanotechnology in cardiovascular sciences.

Although the benefits of nanotechnology transcend all specialties of medicine, one of the important applications of nanomedicine is in the area of cardiovascular sciences. Traditional surgical procedures involve opening of the chest through the sternum, connecting the patient to a cardiopulmonary bypass machine, and arresting the heart.

Various surgical techniques are then performed on the arrested heart. However, these techniques can lead to additional morbidity in that they provoke central nervous system disturbances, as well as gastrointestinal complications in few patients.

These complications multiply in obese patients and also in elderly patients. Minimally invasive cardiac surgery offers hope for patients afflicted with cardiac disease in whom conventional open-heart procedures add considerable morbidity. Nanoscience provides technology to design and develop newer cardiac instruments, which are not only smaller in size but also more effective. Robotic surgical systems are being developed to provide surgeons with unprecedented control over instruments to offer precision.

This is particularly useful for minimally invasive cardiac surgery. Instead of manipulating surgical instruments, surgeons use their fingers to move joystick handles on a control console to maneuver robot arms containing miniature instruments that are inserted into ports in the patient.

The other vital application of nanotechnology in relation to medical research and diagnostics are nanorobots. Nanorobots, operating in the human body, could monitor levels of different compounds and record the information in their internal memory.

They could be rapidly used in the examination of a given tissue, surveying its biomechanical and histometrical features in greater detail. Just as biotechnology extends the range and efficacy of treatment options available from nanomaterials, the advent of molecular nanotechnology will again enormously expand the effectiveness, comfort, and speed of future medical treatments, while at the same time significantly reducing their risk, cost, and invasiveness. Minimally invasive surgery offers a better treatment option to these patients when other methods of treatment fail.

However, currently there are some limitations to the widespread use of these techniques, including the need for safe and effective training systems. Computer-assisted techniologies such as augmented training can offer a viable option. The benefits of using this system of training is that it offers real-life-like training in a simulated environment with the ability to simulate potential complications.

The development of medical training simulation software has been very slow, but it is steadily emerging. Artificial intelligence-based healthcare information management systems, hospital database management systems, and medical decision support systems, etc. This is where an interactive, 3D game-like simulation would be very effective. The major limitation is the size of the instruments. Medical training simulation games have the potential to resolve many of the problems that come with traditional training methods.

Training with a virtual clinical environment and experimenting with different treatment methods on virtual patients is not only non-life threatening, but also gives the trainee his or her results immediately, as well as giving feedback. This in turn will leads to higher quality healthcare through more experienced staff.

Utilising nanotechnology, which helps in the minaturisation of surgical equipment, can have applications in future surgical procedures. The Future of Nanomedicine Developed nations spend billions of dollars of their healthcare budgets on nanotechnology. Clearly, these countries are taking the gamble on the immense potential benefits. What about countries such as India and China? China invests about 1. However, for these countries the precise figure for investment in the areas of nanoscience and nanotechnology are not known.

Investment in new and emerging technologies by developing countries is negligible, and in the area of nanoscience and nanomedicine it hardly exists. This gives rise to the paradigm shift wherein developing countries cannot catch up with the pace of development in nanoscience, causing a divide-nanodivide.

There is a need to establish centers of research and development in these areas at the earliest stage, before it is too late for them to be part of this journey. Developed countries need to take the initiative in creating centers of excellence, not only in developed countries but also in developing countries around the Asian and African regions. The continued advances in the field of biomedical nanotechnology require the collaboration of research groups in complementary fields.

Such collaboration has to be maintained internationally. The successful development and implementation of international collaborations fosters a global perspective on research and creates benefits for mankind in general. However, nanotechnology in medicine faces enormous technical hurdles in that long delay and numerous failures are inevitable. Caution needs to be taken the interface between nanotechnology and medicine in order to produce immense health benefits to all mankind.

Ethical implications in the use of this technology and its impact on medicine should be considered, as it is in only a nascent stage today Current promises offered by the use of this technology will touch all spheres of our life. In future, we need to have a balanced view about the prospects of this technology so that it does not offer us unsubstantiated hope.

Nanoscale science and know-how is growing throughout the world and international interaction is key for bringing alive the benefits of nanotechnology to medicine more quickly. Ernest H, Rahul S, Impact of nanotechnology on biomedical sciences.

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Benefits of Nanotechnology in Cardiovascular Surgery - A Review of Potential Applications

Introduction Among the serious diseases faced by human beings Cardio Vascular disease is the prominent one. Problems involving heart stroke, high blood pressure, angina and rheumatic heart disease comes under the list of these diseases. Coronary heart disease is the main form of heart disease. In common terms, it is known as Heart Disease. Coronary disease is the disorder in the blood vessels of the heart that can lead to heart attack. Heart Attack is characterized by the blockage of the arteries which subsequently prevents oxygen and other healthy nutrients from getting into the heart. Among the various heart diseases, Atherosclerosis is the predominant disease which is particularly characterized by the deposition of the fatty materials on the inner walls of the arteries.

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Heart Bypass Surgery: Pros & Cons

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